Memo, 1 Nov. 68a, 4. SIF/IFF [Selective Identification Feature/Identification Friend or Foe] is an electronic radio-based identification system using transponders, which can also determine bearing and range from the interrogator. SAGE (Semi-Automatic Ground Environment) was a nation-wide network of advanced computer-based, automated control centers for air defense. Developed and implemented in the 1950s and 1960s, by the time SAGE was operational the Soviet bomber threat was replaced by the Soviet missile threat, for which SAGE was entirely inadequate. In 1958, Air Defense Command established a SAGE Sector Direction Center at Minot AFB, including a site at Minot AFS, which were only active from June 1961-May 1963. Regarding the B-52 ECM capabilities see: Goduto 2001, 9-10.  Actually, ECM was powered up during the UFO encounter, see: Goduto 2001, 12-14.